Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE) is an NSF-wide program that supports international activities across all NSF supported disciplines. The primary goal of PIRE is to support high quality projects in which advances in research and education could not occur without international collaboration. PIRE seeks to catalyze a higher level of international engagement in the U.S. science and engineering community. The PIRE competition is open to all areas of science and engineering research which are supported by the NSF. The Principal Investigator (PI) must be an employee representing a U.S. Ph.D-granting institution. U.S. citizenship of the PI and other researchers on the U.S. team is not required.